This is the most common disease in dairy cattle worldwide. Mastitis is an inflammation of udder tissues and mammary glands. This happens due to a response to bacterial invasion of the teat canal by different bacterial sources or through mechanical thermal & chemical injury. This multifactorial disease is related to the environment that cows are kept in. This is basically classified into three groups pathogens, host & environmental aspects. This disease begins after bacteria pass through teat duct & enters the cisternal area. This generally happens during milking. After milking, teat canals remain dilated for 1-2 hours. While damaged canal of teat remains partially open permanently. This makes easier for bacteria and microbes to enter the canal. In this type of infection bacteria eventually enters glandular tissues where alveolar cells were affected. These toxins damage the milk-secreting epithelial cells.
There are two types of mastitis In Cattle:
Contagious Mastitis – Caused by bacteria on the skin of teat and inside the udder. This disease can be transmitted from one cow to another during milking.
Environmental Mastitis – This Occurs When Cow Come In Contact With Contaminated Environment.
Symptoms mastitis In Cattle:
- The watery appearance of milk.
- Puss & clots in milk.
- Reduction of milk Yields.
- Increase in body temperature.
- Lack of Appetite.
- The first step in curing mastitis is to find the causing agent?
- Pathogen presence and inflammatory udder response of udder signify infection.
- The stir cup test
- California mastitis test
- Somatic cell count
- Multiplex PCR
- Bacterial culture
Mastitis is transmitted by contact with contaminated hands and milking machines. another way is oral to udder transmission among calves. Feeding calves on milk will transmit the bacteria to fellow calves. The bacteria will remain dormant until the calve begin to lactate. That is when the bacteria activate and cause mastitis.
Effects On Milk Composition:
It can cause a decline in potassium and increase in lactoferrin. It also results in decrease casein, the major protein in milk. Milk protein continues to undergo further deterioration during storage and processing.
Treatment of mastitis In Cattle:
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used to cure mastitis. Orally administered aspirin should be used.
- On the other side kits for management of mastitis may be used, which may regulate and control ph value and fibrosis and milk.
- Treatment of the disease is carried out by penicillin in combination with sulfur drug.
Factors affecting the susceptibility of mastitis:
- Bacteria type
- Cow physiological status
- Cow age
- Milk production level
- Inherited features
- Milking machine
- Type of environment
Practices like healthy nutrition, proper milking hygiene, making sure that cows have dry & clean bedding decreases the risk of transmission and increasing infection. Wearing rubber gloves while milking. Regular cleaning of machines.
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